Form and Mechanism
Comments on Chapter 9
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Scientifically, this chapter is absolute garbage. It is a case of someone jumping to conclusions and then concocting a bunch of totally unsupportable assumptions to "substantiate" his conclusions.
- It is absolutely ludicrous to think that in a completely different environment in widely-separated parts of the galaxy a huge series of trillions of "coincidences" would produce beings that look exactly like humans.
Consider the following:
- Most stellar systems are either binary or trinary star systems, i.e., two stars revolving around a common center of gravity or three stars revolving around one or two centers of gravity. In such systems, radiation levels and temperatures fluctuate wildly. Any living beings evolving in such an environment would be radically different from humans.
- Galactic cores have much higher radiation levels than outlying areas. Earth is about 26,000 light years from the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Scientists have determined that there is a relatively narrow band in galaxies where radiation levels are low enough for life like us to exist and yet average density of matter is high enough for solar systems similar to ours to form with the proper mix of elements necessary for life as we know it.
- In addition to being located far enough from the center of the Milky Way galaxy, Earth is extremely rare in that it is located between two spiral arms of the galaxy. If Earth were located within one of the arms, radiation levels would be much higher and life as we know it could not exist.
- Furthermore, our solar system is in an unusual position in that it is located almost exactly half-way between two spiral arms. Normally the mass of stars in a spiral arm pulls nearby stars into the arm, but being in the middle, gravity pulls equally in opposite directions.
- Furthermore, Earth is in a very unique position in that it has remained in relatively the same position between the spiral arms for a very long time. Usually, a solar system would gradually drift toward one arm and away from the other. As it drifted toward one arm, radiation levels would increase substantially.
- "Population II" stars contain almost exclusively hydrogen and helium. When a star explodes as a nova or a supernova, elements heavier than iron are formed in the explosion. Population I stars such as the Sun contain a fair amount of elements heavier than helium because they formed from the remnants of Population II explosions. Earth and its Sun are rare in that they formed in an area that contains remnants of both a Population I explosion and a Population II explosion. As
a result, both the Earth and the Sun have a different ratio of elements than most stars.
- Earth's moon has a strong stabilizing effect. Computer simulations conducted in 1993 by Jacques Lasker and his group at the Bureau de Longitudes in Paris, France, showed that without a single moon of roughly our moon's size, Earth would regularly shift back and forth ninety degrees on its axis.
Ambient temperatures on Earth range from about -80°F to +120°F (-62°C to +49°C) Without the stabilizing effect of Earth's moon, temperatures in many places
Earth would regularly vary 200°F (93°C) over relatively short periods of time. Life as we know it would be impossible.
-62 to +49 is a range of 111°C which is 232°F. Because the Celsius and Farenheit scales have different 0° points, you add or subtract 32 when converting a specific temperature. This is not done with a range because a range has no starting point.)
- When a body emits radiation equally in all directions—like a star—radiation received from it by another object—like a planet—works on an inverse-square law. An object twice as close gets four times as much radiation (22=4) an object three times as close gets eight times as much radiation (23=8).
The Earth is 93 million miles (149 million km) from the Sun. Scientists have determined that if the
were one percent
closer, 930,000 miles (1.49 million km), increased temperature and radiation levels would—again—make life as we know it impossible.
- Scientists have also determined that if the Earth were one percent further from the Sun, the decrease in temperature and sunlight would—again—make life as we know it impossible.
Remember—plants use sunlight for photosynthesis. Less sunlight, less photosynthesis. Less photosynthesis, lower oxygen levels. Again, if some form of life evolved, it wouldn't be even vaguely similar to life on Earth.
- Earth's oceans retain heat better than its land masses. They tend to stabilize temperature by absorbing heat during the day and giving off heat at night. About three-quarters of Earth's surface is covered with water. If another planet had a much larger percentage of water, its temperature range would be significantly less than Earth's. If it had much less water, its temperature range would vary much more than Earth's. In either case, the fundamental difference in the environment
would result in
living things quite different from life on Earth.
- Jupiter acts as a gravitic shield. Its gravity pulls comets and various debris in its general direction, distorting orbits and making it less likely a large object will strike the smaller rocky planets in the inner solar system.
- The asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter acts as a shield. Its gravity deflects many things that would otherwise wind up hitting Earth. Even a strike by a meteor one mile (1.6 km) in diameter would cause huge damage all over the planet. Dust and debris thrown into the atmosphere would significantly lower temperatures worldwide for several years.
- Earth's Moon formed when a Mars-sized object traveling at about 200,000 miles per hour (320,000 km per hr.) collided with the early Earth. The energy of the impact literally melted the Earth. Molten rock ejected into space coalesced to form the Moon. However, the object continued traveling to the center of the Earth, where its gravity attracted the heavier elements such as iron, resulting in Earth's current molten iron core. (Although Venus is almost as large as Earth, is much
to the Sun and
is much hotter, it does not have a molten core.)
Because it constantly moves, Earth's iron core generates a strong magnetic field out to 37,000 miles (59,000 km) in space, which deflects a lot of radiation from space that otherwise would reach Earth's surface, where it would kill many living things and cause far more genetic damage and mutations than we see on Earth.
Also, the solar wind continuously ejected by our Sun consists of plasma (atomic nuclei missing their electrons) that has a positive electrical charge. A moving electrical field creates a magnetic field. Earth's magnetic field deflects the solar wind around Earth's atmosphere. Billions of years ago, Mars had a much denser atmosphere much more like Earth's. But Mars has never had a large molten core and therefore its magnetic field is much weaker. Without the protection of a strong magnetic
field, the solar wind gradually tore off most of Mars' atmosphere. If the planet-sized object had not hit the Earth, Earth would not have a molten core, it would not have a protective magnetic field, most of its atmosphere would have been torn off, and life like ours would be impossible. The chances of a random collision occurring elsewhere with pretty much all factors being essentially identical is basically zero—impossible . . ."Ain't gonna happen."
- Most stars in the universe are either blue (younger, hotter, more radiation) or red (older, cooler, less radiation, usually much larger), not yellow, like our sun.
- Planets significantly larger than Earth have stronger gravity. Therefore, they hold gases better. Hence, they have denser atmospheres. To be able to move around, beings evolving on such planets would have to develop heavier skeletal structures and musculature. They would not look human.
- Planets significantly smaller than Earth have lower gravity. They can't hold gases as well, so they have thinner atmospheres. Creatures from such planets could not survive long in Earth's "crushing" gravity and atmosphere. Also, since their gravity is weaker, their skeletal structures and musculature would be much weaker. Most likely, their breathing cavity would be much larger, since the atmosphere would be thinner. Again, they would not look human.
- It has been shown conclusively that the amount of energy in the Big Bang was only sufficient to produce hydrogen and helium, and perhaps small amounts of lithium and beryllium—the four lightest elements. These gases formed Population III stars, which may have existed before galaxies. Estimates are that such stars had extremely short lives—on the order of 10 million years. Eventually, those stars exploded and burned out.
When nuclear reactions take place in stars, heavier elements
such as oxygen, carbon,
etc., are formed. Heavier elements such as lead, uranium, etc., are formed when stars explode as supernovae.
The "ashes" of Population III (oldest) stars eventually formed Population II (middle group) stars. Those burned further and created heavier elements, then they too exploded, although many Population II stars still exist.
Earth's Sun is a Population I star—a third-generation star that formed from the gaseous remnants of Population II novae and supernovae. Compared
to Population III and Population II stars, Earth's Sun contains a much greater proportion of heavy elements.
Life as we know it could not develop on a planet with a Population II star, since the materials from which the planet formed would only contain a few of the lightest elements.
(By the way, the reason the youngest stars are called Population I, the middle group is Population II and the oldest were Population III is that Population I (youngest) stars were discovered first and Population
III (oldest) stars were discovered most recently. Also, although there is significant evidence of their existence, because they are so far away and are individual stars rather than entire galaxies, to date no actual physical Population III stars have been found.)
- Out of all the life forms on Earth, only one—homo sapiens—has an opposable thumb. That indicates how incredibly unlikely it would be for any creature to evolve with an opposable thumb. Without opposable thumbs, various activities described in Ezekiel would have been performed quite differently and their hands would look quite different.