The Spaceships of Ezekiel
Are there Flying Saucers in the Bible?


The Spacecraft - Part C


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Keywords: UFO, unidentified flying objects, Bible, flying saucers, prophecy, Paleo-SETI, ancient astronauts, Erich von Däniken, Josef F. Blumrich, Zecharia Sitchin, Ezekiel, biblical prophecy, spacecraft, spaceship, NASA, Roswell, aircraft, propellant, extraterrestrial hypothesis, Jacques Vallee, interdimensional hypothesis, Project Blue Book, Condon Report, ancient history, Jesus, Judaism, Christianity, Middle East, end times, engines, rockets, helicopters, space travel, aliens, abductions, alien abductions, crop circles, extraterrestrials, astronomy, economics, biology, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Space Shuttle, Apollo, stars, planets, solar system, scriptures, design, fuel tank, aerodynamics, fuels, hydrogen, oxygen, wheels





Chapter 4

The Spacecraft (Part D)

(Part C)
Go to Chapter Part: A B C D E F G H   Comments

    Having thus described and explained the outward shape of the main body, we shall now turn our attention to its installations. The main items involved are: the rocket engine (consisting of reactor, plug nozzle, and radiator), the propellant tank and the propellant, the central power plant for the helicopters, and additional units such as the environment control system and the propellant reliquefaction unit.  [p.25] 

    Just as the shape of the lower body was the key to our reconstruction, so the reactor is the key factor in the actual design. It is located in the lowest portion of the main body. This reactor is a reason why we are not yet able to build such a vehicle.

    To understand that, we have to consider one of the most important characteristics in rocket calculations—the specific impulse Isp. In its conventional definition this value indicates how many pounds of thrust are produced by an engine for each pound of propellant consumed per second. This definition means, among other things, that the less propellant consumed to produce a given thrust the higher will be the Isp value. In the broadest sense, therefore, the specific impulse is an indication of the efficiency of a propulsion system. On the other hand the weight of the propellant accounts for by far the largest portion of the total weight, and a reduction of the amount of propellant is therefore of great importance. Herein lies, in a simplified presentation, the significance of the specific impulse.

    It may happen that for a required flight program a given Isp will result in weights and dimensions that exclude any feasible solution. In such a case it becomes necessary to turn to systems of a higher specific impulse. This is the situation we face with regard to Ezekiel's spaceships.

    Our propulsion systems of today use pure oxygen or an oxidizer in combination with a fuel so as to produce high combustion temperatures. Depending on the propellants used, such systems today can reach Isp values up to and above 400 seconds. (The simplified definition "second" is produced—according to the definition of Isp—by dividing "pound" by "pound per second.") With the use of reactors this value reaches levels exceeding 900 sec because of their higher temperatures. However, the analysis in the Appendix to this book shows that Ezekiel's spaceship becomes a possibility only when Isp values of 2000 sec or more are available! That is why a spaceship of this kind cannot be built today. [Webmaster's Note: This book was written around 1972.] Such values, however, are not as hopelessly beyond our grasp as comparisons with present figures seem to suggest. One may rather assume that it will become possible to design and build such propulsion systems within a few decades. The period of time that may be required to develop such systems depends on the successful solution of considerable technical difficulties which, in turn, would involve the investment of sizable financial resources. The development time is therefore contingent on the intensity of the effort. Consequently, the assumption may not be unjustified that such propulsion systems would perhaps be already in existence today if their development had been regarded as truly essential a number of years ago.

    The reactor of the spacecraft is certainly not a system which lies:—as far as we are concerned—in some dreamy and fantastic remote future; we are in fact quite close to it. When we say "close," we mean, in this case, close in terms of time. This assessment of closeness is based on the experience-supported expectation that a continuous intensive effort will bring about the technological success pursued. But in purely technical terms, we are still quite far from the goal.

    These considerations on the comparison of our present knowledge with that alien technology are of much relevance to the evaluation of Ezekiel's observations. They give us a new and much closer relationship to the Biblical spacecraft. The closeness of that technology strengthens the ground on which we stand in our evaluation.

    We have recognized a recent development of our own times in the shape of the lower body of the spacecraft. The most recent progress in the study of materials enables us to expect with confidence considerable weight savings in future designs and to take this into account in the calculations involved. We are therefore well in a position to assess the feasibility of the spacecraft as shown in Figs. 1 and 4. Because we could build such a spaceship now . . . with the exception of the reactor. It is true that here and there we would have to cope with uncertainties with regard to the rest of the design. Appropriate development work would have to be planned and carried out. But all this is not new to us: Such situations are familiar to ail those who are working in developing spacecraft or high-velocity aircraft.

    On the outside, the plug nozzle is at approximately the same level as the reactor. In principle it is built like any other rocket engine; only the arrangement is different (Fig. 5).

Ezekiel - Rocket Engine Designs

Figure 5 Schematics of rocket engines

    The generally known engines have a circular cross section. The design of the plug nozzle is based on the concept of changing the circular cross section into a circular ring section. Such a design, while increasing the structural diameter of the engine, achieves a radical shortening of its structural length. If the type of vehicle is such as to allow the use of a plug nozzle, its structural height can be significantly reduced by eliminating the engine of conventional design. Moreover, since the diameter of the plug nozzle can be adjusted to that of the main structure, further structural simplification and weight savings will be achieved. The natural compatibility of the shape of the main body with the application of this advantageous principle is self-evident and one more indication of the correctness of its selection.

    The radiator is located above the plug nozzle. An estimate of its size, that is, of the amount of surface it requires, is very uncertain because we have no real knowledge of either the reactor or of a possible additional cooling system. There is no doubt, however, that a large surface is needed. The radiator has accordingly a considerable upward extension and constitutes a part of the aerodynamic surface.

    While the size is an unanswered question, fairly safe estimates can be made of the operational temperature of the radiator. Fundamental considerations of material properties let us expect temperatures on the order of 1000°-1300° centigrade (1800°-2300° F). This determination is important insofar as it indicates that the radiator glows when in operation.

    As we have seen so far, the lower body of the spaceship—up to a probably relatively large distance from its "tip"—is subjected to high temperatures when the reactor and the nozzle are in operation. This area presents special difficulties with respect to both the selection of materials and the design. The same area experiences a roughly equivalent heat load during the braking phase of the flight through the atmosphere. At that time, however, the reactor is not operating, the surfaces in question are not heated by either the reactor or the plug nozzle and are therefore available for the thermal load of the braking. This dual function of one of the most complicated components of the vehicle is of great importance for its operation and efficiency. It is fascinating to observe such ingenious and judicious selection of the arrangement.

    The propellant tank is located above and as close as possible to the reactor. The size of the intermediate space is determined by the structures that are required between the tank and the reactor: the main valve in the propellant line, the turbo-pump, and the radiation shield.

    The need for these devices is easily understandable: The valve keeps the propellant in the tank as long as the reactor is not in operation, and it opens when the reactor is started. Then the turbo-pump delivers the propellant to the reactor in the quantity and under the pressure required. The radiation shield protects the crew in the capsule from the harmful radiation of the reactor. The crew spends most of its time in the capsule; the radiation dose in that direction must therefore be kept at as low a level as possible. Although the propellant in the tank does provide some shielding, most of the radiation must be blocked by a special shield. The radiation shield must be large enough to prevent the capsule from being exposed to the radiation coming from the reactor. To use an image, the reactor must not be able to "see" the capsule. This concept explains why the lateral extension of the thickest portion of the shield can be relatively small. The shielding of the other sides of the reactor can be made thinner and lighter because there is rarely anybody in that direction and if so for only a short time.

    The propellant tank occupies most of the volume of the spacecraft. It begins, as already mentioned, somewhat above the reactor and extends upward, reaching beyond the region of the maximum diameter of the main body. Its outline essentially follows the concave outside profile (Fig. 16, Appendix). Some space is required between the vehicle surface and the tank to provide room for structural members, pipes, cables, and insulating material. The upper side of the tank has a large diameter, which would make a bulkhead with the customarily elliptical cross section uneconomical. We can safely assume that a special design was used. Designs of that kind are mentioned in the technical Appendix to this book.

    Liquid hydrogen, which has a boiling point of about -253° C (-442.9° F), is used as propellant. Already today, insulation systems are available that can maintain such an extremely low temperature; and work for their improvement is being continued. Instead of liquid hydrogen the tank may contain a mixture of liquid and frozen hydrogen roughly comparable to what we commonly describe as slushy snow.

    The last of the essential systems housed in the inside of the main body is the central power plant for the helicopter units. In its study we encounter yet another elegant solution in the design of the spaceship: one and the same energy source supplies two different users. The helicopters and the rocket engine are never in full operation simultaneously, and the reactor's energy can therefore be used to power either of the two systems as required.

    The actual principle of the central power plant cannot be closely defined. Yet it is doubtlessly based on the transformation of the reactor's thermal energy into electric energy which, in turn, is converted into mechanical motion of the rotors.

    In view of the weight estimates that follow later, an installation will be assumed that consists of a turbogenerator, electric motors, and transmission gears. The direct transformation of heat into electricity involves heavy equipment at today's state of the art; it may be expected, however, that this transformation will lead, after a sufficiently long period of development, to solutions that are more advantageous in terms of weight. For our purposes it is therefore preferable to consider the conventional system because it results in heavier weights and therefore increases the reliability of the weight estimates.

    The assumed plant works as follows: The thermal energy of the reactor drives the turbine by evaporation of a not closely defined medium. The generator coupled to it produces the electric energy, which is transmitted by cables to electric motors, which drive the gears of the helicopters. The vapor is condensed after it leaves the turbine; the liquid medium thus regained is pumped into a container from where it can then be recycled. For the purpose of condensation a radiator may be considered that could be built into the upper surface of the spaceship, or, else, use can be made of the low temperature of hydrogen. In the latter case the reliquefaction unit, which is probably provided anyway, would have to be laid out accordingly.

    Production of energy, and condensation, occur in closed cycles: Aside from minor loss due to leakage, neither the medium driving the turbine, nor hydrogen, is lost. This conclusion is of far-reaching significance since it shows us that the spaceship can fly in the atmosphere of the earth for unlimited lengths of time.  [p.31] 

The helicopters


       The Spacecraft (Part D)